These two words are a source of trouble for many English learners. The reason? They have about the same meaning, but each word's action goes in different directions.
source of trouble: fuente de problemas; learners: estudiantes, aprendices; reason: motivo, razón; they have about: tienen más o menos; same meaning: mismo significado; each word's action: la acción de cada palabra; goes: funciona;
BORROW means to take something from another person, knowing you will give it back to them.
to take something: tomar algo (temporalmente); from another person: de otra persona, que pertenece a otra persona; you will give it back: que se lo devolverás;
LEND means to give something to another person expecting to get it back.
to give something: dar, entregar algo tuyo (temporalmente); to another person: a otra persona; expecting to get it back: suponiendo que lo recuperarás;
Your choice of “borrow” or “lend” depends on which direction is more important to you.
your choice: tu elección; depends on which: depende de cual (al verbo DEPEND le sigue siempre la preposición ON, no OF);
Notice that the prepositions that often follow the verbs are different. We borrow from someone, but we lend to someone.
notice that: observa que; that often follow: que a menudo le siguen a; BORROW FROM SOMEONE: pedirle prestado a alguien; LEND TO SOMEONE: prestarle a alguien;
Let’s say you and I go shopping. I need to sign my name on a receipt, but I do not have a pen. So I ask you, “Can I borrow a pen?” I chose “borrow” because I am thinking of the action as it relates to me. You are a good friend, so you lend me the pen. I forget it is yours and I put it in my bag.
let's say: supongamos que; go shopping: vamos de compras; to sign: firmar; receipt: recibo; as it reates to me: en lo que a mí respecta; I forget it is yours: me olvido que (la lapicera) es tuya; I put it in my bag: la guardo en mi cartera;
Later, we meet a good friend and she asks for your email address. You search in your bag, but – no pen! You think, “I lent Jill my pen. And she didn’t give it back to me.” Now you are thinking of the action that you did. So, you can ask me, “Jill, do you remember that pen I lent you? I need it now.”
later: más tarde; we meet: nos encontramos con; and she asks for your: y ella te pide tu; you search: buscas en tu cartera; I lent Jill: le presté a Jill; I need it now: ahora la necesito;
I feel bad that I forgot to return the pen. I say, “Sorry! I forgot that I borrowed it. Here you are!”
I feel bad that: me siento mal porque; I forgot to return: olvidé devolver; that I borrowed it: que la pedí prestada;
Personal pronouns like me, you, him and others never come after the verb “borrow,” but it is correct to use them after “lend,” as in, “Lend me a dollar for some ice cream”.
for some ice cream: para (comprar) un helado;
I hope this helps you understand “lend” and “borrow”. I’m Jill Robbins.
helps you understand: te ayude a entender.